[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan"]Pakistan[/ame]'s native flora reflects its varied climatic zones, which range from arid and semi-arid to temperate and tropical.
There are a large variety of trees that are native to the Pakistan region with many that can be found through-out the South Asian sub-continent. Below is a non-exhaustive list of trees native to Pakistan, with local names in brackets:
- Azadirachta indica ([ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neem"]neem[/ame])
- [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinus_gerardiana"]Pinus gerardiana[/ame] (Chilgoza pine)
- [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cedrus_deodara"]Cedrus deodara[/ame] (Deodar)
- [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platanus_orientalis"]Platanus orientalis[/ame] (Chenar / Chinar)
- [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_catechu"]Acacia catechu[/ame]
- [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_nilotica"]Acacia nilotica[/ame] / Acacia arabica (babul)
- [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus_religiosa"]Ficus religiosa[/ame] (Peepul)
- [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalbergia_sissoo"]Dalbergia sissoo[/ame] Roxb. (Sheesham)
Vast sections of the [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus"]Indus[/ame] [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_plain"]flood plains[/ame] have been cleared of natural [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetation"]vegetation[/ame] to grow crops. Very little wildlife habitat has been left untouched. Only animals like the [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackal"]jackal[/ame], [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongoose"]mongoose[/ame], jungle cat, civet cat, scaly [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anteater"]anteater[/ame], desert cat and the wild hare occur in these areas. [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hog_deer"]Hog deer[/ame] are founn riverine tracts. The crop residues and wild growth support reasonable populations of black and grey partridges.
The lack of vegetative cover, severity of climatic conditions, and the impact of grazing animals on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. Parts of [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thall"]Thall[/ame] and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholistan"]Cholistan[/ame] are now being [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrigated"]irrigated[/ame], with the situation almost identical to that of the flood plains. Chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan, but rarely in Thall. The [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackbuck"]blackbuck[/ame], once plentiful in Cholistan, has now been eliminated; efforts are being made to reintroduce them into the country. A small number of blue bulls are found along the Pakistan-Indian border, and in some parts of Cholistan. Grey partridge, species of sand grouse and the Indian courser are the main birds of the area. Peafowl occur in some areas in Cholistan.
The [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_Desert"]Thar Desert[/ame] supports a fair population of the Chinkara gazelle. Peacocks are only found in the wild, mainly because of the protection they enjoy in Hindu communities. The wild ass migrates from the Indian part of the [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rann_of_Kutch"]Rann of Kutch[/ame] to the Pakistani part in search of food.
The [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houbara_bustard"]Houbara bustard[/ame] is a regular winter visitor to the desert, but visiting game hunters have reduced their numbers. The great Indian bustard is occasionally sighted. The imperial sandgrouse is another migrant visiting these areas. Grey partridges are frequently sighted. The python is also threatened with extinction.
The Sulaiman and Kirthar Ranges present habitats manifesting unique characteristics. The former supports the straight-horned [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markhor"]markhor[/ame], chinkara and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urial"]urial[/ame], whereas Sindh ibex, urial, chinkara and common leopard occupy the latter. The straight-horned markhor, which is almost extinct within the settled boundaries of Pakistan, occurs in somewhat fair numbers in the Tribal Areas. The chakor, seesee and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_partridge"]grey partridge[/ame] are birds commonly found in the tracts.
The [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reed_bed"]reed beds[/ame] and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamarisk"]tamarisk[/ame] bushes along the rivers support hog deer and black partridge populations. However, occasional heavy floods have reduced their numbers. The [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Dolphin"]Indus Dolphin[/ame] (National marine Mammal of [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan"]Pakistan[/ame]), [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishing_cat"]fishing cat[/ame], and smooth otter are found in the Indus River waters below the [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chashma_Barrage"]Chashma Barrage[/ame]. The gavial has become extinct in Pakistan. The [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mugger_Crocodile"]Indus Crocodile[/ame] (National Reptile of [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan"]Pakistan[/ame]) is found in small numbers in lower [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindh"]Sindh[/ame]. [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_boar"]Wild boar[/ame] numbers have increased because of the immunity they enjoy in a [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim"]Muslim[/ame] society that forbids their consumption by humans.
The animals found in the south-western mountains of Balochistan include Sindh ibex, Chiltan markhor, straight horned markhor, wild sheep, [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopard"]leopard[/ame], marbled [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pole_cat"]pole cat[/ame], Blandford's fox, [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinkara"]chinkara[/ame], goitered [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gazelle"]gazelle[/ame] and the marsh crocodile. Some [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheetahs"]cheetahs[/ame] may still survive but, like the Makran (Baluchistan) bear, they are critically endangered. The Houbara bustard (migratory), sandgrouse, black and grey partridges, and the chakor and see see partridges are also found here.
Irrigated forest plantations have emerged as the prevailing land use practice for the last 100 years. These ideally provide excellent habitat for chinkara, hog deer and blue bull. Forest management does not cater to the needs of these wild animals. This, coupled with the poor implementation of laws has resulted in the extinction of species in the irrigated plantations. Due to habitat disturbances, the ungulates have failed to establish themselves, whereas the partridges have flourished well.
The striped [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyena"]hyena[/ame] and the [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf"]wolf[/ame] are widely distributed in the sparsely populated parts of the country. However, information about them is scanty. Information about carnivores in general is difficult to obtain because of their nocturnal mode of life and high mobility. little is known of the [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asiatic_Black_Bear"]black bear[/ame] and [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_bear"]brown bear[/ame] populations.
Birds of prey like the [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peregrine_Falcon"]peregrine[/ame], cherrug or saker [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falcon"]falcons[/ame], [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tawny_eagle"]tawny eagle[/ame], imperial and greater [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted_eagle"]spotted eagles[/ame], [ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osprey"]osprey[/ame], shikra, and the black-winged kite occur throughout Pakistan, but their population statuses are unknown.
National tree of Pakistan